The waltz (from German: "Walzer") is a smooth, progressive ballroom and folk dance, normally in triple time, performed primarily in closed position.There are several references to a sliding or gliding dance—a waltz—from the 16th century, including the representations of the printer H.S. Beheim. The French philosopher Montaigne wrote of a dance he saw in 1580 in Augsburg, where the dancers held each other so closely that their faces touched. Kunz Haas (of approximately the same period) wrote, "Now they are dancing the godless Weller or Spinner." "The vigorous peasant dancer, following an instinctive knowledge of the weight of fall, utilizes his surplus energy to press all his strength into the proper beat of the measure, thus intensifying his personal enjoyment in dancing".
Argentine Tango is a musical genre of simple quadruple metre and binary musical form, and the social dance that accompanies it. Its lyrics and music are marked by nostalgia, expressed through melodic instruments including the bandoneón. Originating at the ending of the 19th century in the suburbs of Buenos Aires, and Montevideo, Uruguay, it quickly grew in popularity and spread internationally. Among its leading figures are the singer and songwriter Carlos Gardel and composers/performers Francisco Canaro, Juan D'Arienzo, Osvaldo Pugliese, and Ástor Piazzolla.
The Viennese Waltz is a rotary dance where the dancers are constantly turning either toward the leader's right (natural) or toward the leader's left (reverse), interspersed with non-rotating change steps to switch between the direction of rotation. A true Viennese waltz consists only of turns and change steps. Other moves such as the fleckerls, American-style figures and side sway or underarm turns are modern inventions and are not normally danced at the annual balls in Vienna. Furthermore, in a properly danced Viennese Waltz, couples do not pass, but turn continuously left and right while travelling counterclockwise around the floor following each other.
The basic components of the Fox Trot are walking steps and side steps. Crowded dance floors and nightclub conditions require short steps. In larger ballrooms the slow Fox Trot is characterized by longer, smooth and gliding steps, with an ease of movement and control giving this dance an unhurried appearance.
Much like a fast version of the Foxtrot, the Quickstep is a ballroom dance style composed of extremely quick stepping and syncopated feet rhythms in time to fast-paced music. Although difficult to master and perform, the Quickstep is lots of fun to watch.
Bachata is a style of social dance from the Dominican Republic which is now danced all over the world. It is associated with bachata music.
Salsa is a popular form of social dance that originated in New York City with strong influences from Latin America, particularly Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Colombia. The movements of salsa have origins in Cuban Son, Cha-cha-cha, Mambo and other dance forms, and the dance, along with the salsa music, originated in the mid-1970s in New York.
The components of Mambo are rock steps and side steps, and foot styling includes points, kicks or flicks. The Latin hip movement in Mambo is an important aspect of the dance. The overall flavor of the dance is contained in the translation of the word Mambo which means “shake it” or “say it.”
"Swing dance" (sometimes called "Jitterbug") is a group of dances that developed with the swing style of jazz music in the 1920s-1940s, with the origins of each dance predating the popular "swing era". During the swing era, there were hundreds of styles of swing dancing, but those that have survived beyond that era include: Lindy Hop, Balboa, Collegiate Shag, and Lindy Charleston. Today, the most well-known of these dances is the Lindy Hop, which originated in Harlem in the early 1930s. While the majority of swing dances began in African American communities as vernacular African American dances, a swing era dance, like Balboa, developed outside of these communities.
Before Samba became a ballroom dance style, there were many styles of partner dances as well as solo Samba dances. As with the solo Samba, partner ballroom Samba has a quick beat that requires fast footwork. Over the years, the Samba has incorporated elaborate tricks, turns, and acrobatic feats into its basic set of figures.The main characteristics of the Samba are rapid steps taken on quarter beats and a rocking, swaying motion of the dancers.
Cha-cha-chá is danced to authentic Cuban music, although in ballroom competitions it is often danced to Latin Pop or Latin Rock. The music for the international ballroom cha-cha-chá is energetic and with a steady beat. The Cuban cha-cha-chá is more sensual and may involve complex polyrhythms
Styles of cha-cha-chá dance may differ in the place of the chasse in the rhythmical structure. The original Cuban and the ballroom cha-cha count is "two, three, chachacha", "four-and-one, two, three" or "one, two, three, chacha". The dance does not start on the first beat of a bar, though it can start with a transfer of weight to the lead's right.
Nevertheless, many social dancers count "one, two, cha-cha-cha" and may find it difficult to make the adjustment to the correct timing of the dance, "two, three, cha-cha, one".
The Rumba is an increasingly popular romantic Latin dance dating back some 400 years ago, and is better known as the Latin “Get-Acquainted” dance or the dance with the wiggle. The Rumba sometimes substitutes for those in-between tempos and features a subtle or relaxed (lateral) hip motion and Latin styling. Rumba hip movements are used in most of the popular Latin dances as well as the freestyle of disco and nightclub dancing.
Merengue ,Spanish: is a style of Dominican music and dance. Partners hold each other in a closed position. The leader holds the follower's waist with the leader's right hand, while holding the follower's right hand with the leader's left hand at the follower's eye level. Partners bend their knees slightly left and right, thus making the hipsmove left and right. The hips of the leader and follower move in the same direction throughout the song. Partners may walk sideways or circle each other, in small steps.